Questions and answers

How do you read a Piper diagram?

How do you read a Piper diagram?

To use the Piper diagram, firstly, the concentration of anions and cations must be placed in the triangles. Then, a perpendicular line must be drawn from the sample point in one triangle to the diamond and repeat it from the other triangle.

What does a Piper diagram show?

A Piper diagram is a graphical representation of the chemistry of a water sample or samples. The cations and anions are shown by separate ternary plots. The apexes of the anion plot are sulfate, chloride and carbonate plus hydrogen carbonate anions. The two ternary plots are then projected onto a diamond.

What is a trilinear diagram?

A piper (trilinear) diagram is a specialized graph type for charting the chemistry of a water samples. Origin’s piper diagram is created from worksheet data with column plot designations XYZXYZ. Each column contains the percentage value of each ion group.

What is durov diagram?

The Durov diagram is a popular visualization technique applied in hydrogeology to display the major ions as percentages of milli-equivalents in two ternary (trilinear) graphs that form an additional two-dimensional projection (the Durov projection).

What is Gibbs diagram?

Gibbs diagram is widely used to establish the relationship of water composition and aquifer lithological characteristics. Three distinct fields such as precipitation dominance, evaporation dominance and rock–water interaction dominance areas are shown in the Gibbs diagram (Gibbs, 1970).

How do you plot a durov diagram?

Create a Durov Plot in Grapher

  1. Click the desired Home | New Graph | Ternary | Durov command ( ).
  2. In the Open Worksheet dialog, select your data file and click Open.
  3. If needed, adjust the data columns in the Plot tab of the Property Manager after clicking on the Cation or Anion Plot in the Object Manager.

What is Wilcox diagram?

The Wilcox plot is a semi-log scatter plot of the “sodium hazard” (sodium adsorption ration [SAR]) on the Y-axis versus the “salinity hazard” (electrical conductivity) on the X-axis. The conductivity is plotted by default in a log scale.

What does a ternary diagram show?

A ternary phase diagram shows possible phases and their equilibrium according to the composition of a mixture of three components at constant temperature and pressure. Two-phase regions are areas enclosed by black curves and for the two-phase regions shown, some tie-lines are shown by blue dashed-lines.

How do you plot a Gibbs diagram?

Gibbs diagram is obtained by plotting TDS against Na+/(Na++ Ca2+) and Cl-/(Cl- + HCO3- ). Groundwater suitability for irrigation mainly depends on the concentration of total salinity and sodium related to other ions. Wilcox plot of Na % against EC to assess the irrigation water suitability.

What is Schoeller diagram?

A Schoeller plot is a series of line/scatter plots where the X values are the cation or anion measured in a sample and the Y values are the concentration of each ion. This plot type displays the relative concentrations of various anions and cations from multiple samples on a single graph.

Which is the apex of a piper diagram?

Data source: A piper diagram is a graphical representation of the chemistry of a water sample or samples. The cations and anions are shown by separate ternary plots. The apexes of the cation plot are calcium, magnesium and sodium plus potassium cations.

When did Arthur M Piper create the piper diagram?

In 1994, Arthur M. Piper, proposed an effective graphic procedure to segregate relevant analytical data to understand the sources of the dissolved constituents in water. This procedure was born under the statement that most natural waters contain cations and anions in chemical equilibrium.

How are water samples grouped in a piper diagram?

Water samples shown on the Piper diagram can be grouped in hydrochemical facies. The cation and anion triangles can be separated in regions based on the dominant cation (s) or anion (s) and their combination creates regions in the diamond shaped part of the diagram.

Which is better a Stiff diagram or a piper diagram?

The piper diagram is suitable for comparing the ionic composition of a set of water samples, but does not lend itself to spatial comparisons. For geographical applications, the Stiff diagram and Maucha diagram are more applicable, because they can be used as markers on a map.