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Is systolic anterior motion normal?

Is systolic anterior motion normal?

Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve (MV) can be a life-threatening condition. The SAM can result in severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and/or mitral regurgitation and is associated with an up to 20% risk of sudden death (which is substantially lower in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)).

What causes systolic anterior motion?

Systolic anterior motion is a result of complex geometric interaction between mitral valve components requiring significant Venturi and drag forces in the presence of good functioning left ventricle (LV). Disruption in dynamic mitral valvular apparatus, eg, after mitral valve repair can produce SAM.

What is Sam in echocardiography?

Systolic anterior motion (SAM) is defined as displacement of the distal portion of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve toward the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

What is Hocm with Sam?

Background—In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a spectrum of mitral leaflet abnormalities has been related to the mechanism of mitral systolic anterior motion (SAM), which causes both subaortic obstruction and mitral regurgitation.

What is chordal systolic anterior motion?

Chordal SAM was defined as systolic anterior motion involving only the chordae tendineae (Fig. 2) [31]. The LVOT area was calculated from the length of the LOVT in the parasternal long- axis view at early systole.

What is Sam cat?

Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is common in cats with HCM. Cats with HCM and SAM are commonly said to have the obstructive form of HCM or hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).

What is normal Lvot velocity?

In a healthy population, the normal LVOT VTI is 18 to 22 cm for heart rates (HRs) between 55 and 95 beats per minute. If a patient presents with an HR of less than 55 beats per minute, the LVOT obtained must be greater than 18 cm; if not, decreased stroke volume and cardiac output can be assumed.

What causes Lvoto?

What is LVOTO? Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is a recognised feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is caused by the thickened heart muscle and the abnormal movement of the mitral valve. This is the main mechanism of debilitating symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients.

What is normal mitral valve mean gradient?

Mitral Valve. Aortic Valve Mean Gradient. Normal Area 4.0-6.0 cm2. Mild Stenosis 1.5-2.5 cm2. Moderate Stenosis 1.5-1.5 cm2.

What is outflow gradient?

A left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient (LVOT PG) ≥50 mmHg at rest in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a predictor of heart failure and cardiovascular death [1, 2]. The clinical indication for myectomy and alcohol septal ablation is also LVOT PG ≥50 mmHg at rest or with physiological exercise [3].