What causes sulfide stress cracking?

What causes sulfide stress cracking?

Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) occurs when atomic hydrogen diffuses into the metal but remains in solid solution in the crystal lattice. This reduces the ductility and deformability of the metal, which is termed hydrogen embrittlement.

What causes stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel?

The combination of tensile stress and a specific corrosive environment can crack stainless steels. This mode of attack is termed stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The most common environmental exposure condition responsible for SCC of stainless steels is the presence of chlorides.

What makes stainless steel crack?

Iron contamination of the surface. The presence of a highly corrosive film containing chloride compounds. Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CLSCC) is one the most common reasons why austenitic stainless steel pipework and vessels deteriorate in the chemical processing and petrochemical industries.

What is the abbreviation of SSC regarding corrosion?

Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) is a type of hydrogen cracking which presents a cathodic embrittlement mechanism. This term should not be confused with stress corrosion cracking (SCS), since this is anodic in nature.

How does stress corrosion cracking occur?

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the cracking induced from the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive environment. The impact of SCC on a material usually falls between dry cracking and the fatigue threshold of that material. SCC usually occurs in certain specific alloy-environment-stress combinations.

Is sulfide a sulfur?

Sulfide is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions. It contributes no color to sulfide salts.

How do you know if stress corrosion are cracking?

A close-up of the surface of a steel pipeline showing stress corrosion cracking (two clusters of small black lines) revealed by magnetic particle inspection. Cracks which would normally have been invisible are detectable due to the magnetic particles clustering at the crack openings.

How do you prevent stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel?

One of the main prevention methods involves using a non-susceptible material. This is an important way of controlling SCC as it prevents this form of corrosion from occurring in the service environment that the material is operating in.

What can damage stainless steel?

Stainless steel can be damaged by abrasive pads, the wrong kinds of cleaners, and even ordinary things like water and salt. Despite its name and reputation, stainless steel can both stain and rust. Following a few basic “dont’s” will help keep your stainless steel kitchenware out of trouble.

What is chloride stress corrosion cracking?

Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) is a type of intergranular corrosion. Chloride stress corrosion involves selective attack of a metal along its grain boundaries. It occurs in austenitic stainless steel under tensile stress in the presence of oxygen, chloride ions and high temperature.

How do you stop stress corrosion cracking?

Another preventive method involves the mitigation of the service environment by removing, limiting or replacing the relevant corrosive chemical species. This prevents stress corrosion cracking from occurring.

What do you need to know about sulfide stress cracking?

Basics of Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) SSC and SCC are cracking processes that develop in the presence of water, corrosion and surface tensile stress. It is a progressive type of failure that produces cracking at stress levels that are well below the material’s tensile strength.

What kind of cracking is caused by hydrogen sulfide?

Sulfide stress corrosion cracking, also known as sulfide stress cracking (SSC), is a stress corrosion cracking phenomena that occurs in the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is known to cause or assist in the mechanism of cracking with many alloy types including low carbon steels, low alloy steels, alloy steels, tool steels,…

How is hydrogen embrittlement related to sulfide stress cracking?

Sulfide stress cracking is a form of hydrogen embrittlement that occurs in high-strength steels and in localized hard zones in weldment of susceptible materials when the environment contains wet H 2S.

Why do you need stress to crack steel?

This cracking failure requires applied stress because it initiates from the steel surface [58, 59 ].