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What is antepartum haemorrhage PDF?

What is antepartum haemorrhage PDF?

ANTEPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE It is defined as bleeding from or into the genital tract after the 28th week of pregnancy but before the birth of the baby (the first and second stage of labor are thus included).

What is the antepartum haemorrhage?

Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) is defined as bleeding from or in to the genital tract, occurring from 24+0 weeks of pregnancy and prior to the birth of the baby. The most important causes of APH are placenta praevia and placental abruption, although these are not the most common.

How do you control antepartum hemorrhage?

Delaying surgery may be indicated in urgent cases of APH if maternal bleeding is minimal, the mother is stable hemodynamically, and the fetus shows no signs of distress. Delay to allow the administration of steroids to enhance fetal lung maturity is appropriate. Surgical therapy for PPH most often cannot be delayed.

How is antepartum hemorrhage diagnosed?

Any vaginal bleeding at or after 24 weeks must be diagnosed as an antepartum haemorrhage if any of the following are present: A sanitary pad is at least partially soaked with blood. Blood runs down the patient’s legs. A clot of blood has been passed.

What are the signs and symptoms of antepartum haemorrhage?

(b) In APH due to placental abruption symptoms include:

  • Vaginal bleeding.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Back pain.
  • Uterine tenderness.
  • Uterine contractions,
  • Firmness in the uterus or abdomen.

What are the types of antepartum haemorrhage?

Antepartum haemorrhage

  • Cervical ectropion. The cells on the surface of the cervix often change in pregnancy and make the tissue more likely to bleed, particularly after sex.
  • Infection.
  • Placental edge bleed.
  • Placenta praevia.
  • Placental abruption.
  • Management.

How many types of antepartum haemorrhage are there?

Types 1 and 2 are classified as minor placental praevia as these typically result in minor antepartum haemorrhaging. Types 3 and 4 are referred to as major placental praevia due to the risk of heavy haemorrhaging in the case of a rupture due to the location of placental attachment.

How many types of APH are there?

Placenta praevia is classified into four types: Type I: the placenta is located in the lower part of the uterus but does not come close to the cervix.

What are the signs and symptoms of APH?

What is the difference between antepartum and intrapartum?

Authors have distinguished between antepartum stillbirths (those occurring prior to labor), and intrapartum stillbirths (those occurring after the onset of labor) 2.

What are the 4 types of bleeding?

In general, there are 3 types of bleeding: arterial, venous, and capillary. As you might expect, they are named after the three different types of blood vessels: the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The 3 types of bleeding injuries have different characteristics. Arterial bleeding is usually the most severe.