Questions and answers

What is Bertrand model in economics?

What is Bertrand model in economics?

Bertrand competition is a model of competition in which two or more firms produce a homogenous good and compete in prices. Theoretically, this competition in prices, providing the goods are perfect substitutes, ends with the firms selling their goods at marginal costs and thus making zero profits.

How do you calculate Bertrand?

Bertrand’s equilibrium occurs when P1=P2=MC, being MC the marginal cost, yielding the same result as perfect competition. The logic is simple: if the price set by both firms is the same but the marginal cost is lower, there will be an incentive for both firms to lower their prices and seize the market.

Why is the Bertrand model useful?

As they have set the same price, demand is split evenly between them and they each capture half of the market. Therefore this Bertrand- Nash equilibrium is where Pa=Pb=MC and qa=qb=Q/2. This model is useful because price competition is observed more often than quantity competition.

What industries would you classify as Bertrand?

Examples of Bertrand competition would be the airlines, cell phone service, most of the service industry, and insurance.

Is Bertrand model efficient?

Bertrand competition has traditionally been considered as more efficient in welfare terms than Cournot competition because it leads to lower prices and larger quantities (see for example Shubik, 1980, Vives, 1985, Singh and Vives, 1984).

What is an example of Bertrand oligopoly?

Coca-Cola and Pepsi are examples of Bertrand duopolists. With the Bertrand model, you focus on what price is selected to maximize your profits. In the Cournot and Stackelberg duopoly models, the focus is on quantity. Profit maximization then requires each firm to choose a price that maximizes its total revenue.

What is the difference between Cournot and Bertrand Duopoly models?

Cournot oligopoly [3] and Bertrand oligopoly [4] are the two most notable models in oligopoly theory. In the Cournot model, firms control their production level, which influences the market price, while in the Bertrand model, firms choose the price of a unit of product to affect the market demand.

What is the difference between Bertrand and Cournot?

The Cournot model considers firms that make an identical product and make output decisions simultaneously. The Bertrand model considers firms that make and identical product but compete on price and make their pricing decisions simultaneously.

Is Cournot or Bertrand more efficient?

Bertrand competition is generally viewed as more efficient in welfare terms than Cournot competition. Moreover, individual firms’ ex ante expected profits as well as their actually realised profits are often higher in the Bertrand game.

What are the three oligopoly models?

We have now covered three models of oligopoly: Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg. These three models are alternative representations of oligopolistic behavior. The Bertand model is relatively easy to identify in the real world, since it results in a price war and competitive prices.

Is Bertrand better than Cournot?

Vives (1985) and Singh and Vives (1984) found that Bertrand competition results in higher consumer surplus, lower profits and higher overall welfare than Cournot competition in a duopoly model where goods are substitutes and the firms’ only choice variable is either price or output.

Which is better Bertrand or Cournot?

When products are perfect substitutes, Cournot competition yields higher prices, higher profits and lower quantities than Bertrand competition. However, the case of differentiated products is significantly more complex.

How does the Bertrand model of price competition work?

Bertrand Model of Price Competition •With only two firms competing in prices we obtain the perfectly competitive outcome, where firms set prices equal to marginal cost. •Price competition makes each firm �face an infinitely elastic demand curve at its rival’s price, �� –Any increase (decrease) from ��

How is Bertrand’s model different from Cournot’s?

Bertrand’s model has some significant differences in the assumptions as compared to Cournot’s duopoly model. The adjusting variable in Bertrand’s model is price and not output. Bertrand assumes that each seller (firm) believes that the rival will keep his/her price constant, regardless of his own decision about pricing.

How to calculate the constant marginal cost of the Bertrand model?

Calculating the classic Bertrand model MC = constant marginal cost (equals constant unit cost of production). p 1 = firm 1’s price level p 2 = firm 2’s price level p M = monopoly price level

How does Bertrand’s model of oligopoly work?

Bertrand opined that there was no limit to the fell in price since each producer can always lower the price by underbidding the other and increasing his supply of output until the price becomes equal to his unit cost of production. Bertrand’s model has some significant differences in the assumptions as compared to Cournot’s duopoly model.