Questions and answers

What is leukemia associated Immunophenotype?

What is leukemia associated Immunophenotype?

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemias are also frequently characterized by a leukaemia-associated immunophenotype (LAIP), either the coexpression of differentiation antigens physiologically restricted to other stages of differentiation (asynchronous LAIP) or cell lineages (aberrant LAIP).

What do promyelocytes become?

In acute promyelocytic leukemia, immature white blood cells called promyelocytes accumulate in the bone marrow. The overgrowth of promyelocytes leads to a shortage of normal white and red blood cells and platelets in the body, which causes many of the signs and symptoms of the condition.

What is a Promyelocyte?

Along with metamyelocytes and myelocytes, promyelocytes are the precursors of neutrophils, the largest class of white blood cells. These immature neutrophils are normally found only in bone marrow. In the blood, it is metamyelocytes that are the most often observed, accompanied by a few myelocytes.

What is immunophenotyping used for?

Immunophenotyping is used primarily to help diagnose and classify the blood cell cancers, leukemias and lymphomas, and to help guide their treatment.

What are the symptoms of acute promyelocytic leukemia?

The symptoms of APL are due to the shortage of normal blood cells. They include fevers, fatigue, loss of appetite, and frequent infections. People with APL are also at an increased risk of bleeding and forming blood clots.

Are myelocytes normal?

Occasional metamyelocytes and myelocytes may be seen but their presence in peripheral blood usually indicates infection, inflammation or a primary bone marrow process. The presence of progranulocytes or blast forms in the peripheral blood always indicates a serious disease process is present.

What chromosome causes leukemia?

An abnormal chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Your cells each contain 23 pairs of chromosomes that are made of DNA and hold the instructions for every cell in your body.

Can flow cytometry detect leukemia?

Flow cytometry immunophenotyping may be performed on blood, bone marrow, or other samples to provide this additional information. It can detect normal cells as well as abnormal cells whose pattern of markers are typically seen with specific types of leukemia and lymphoma.

What is the best treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia?

The most important drugs for treating APL are non-chemo drugs called differentiating agents, like all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Other treatments might include chemotherapy (chemo) and transfusions of platelets or other blood products.

What is the survival rate for acute promyelocytic leukemia?

Treatment Outcomes Because of advances in diagnostic techniques and modern treatments, APL is today considered to be the most curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia in adults, with complete remission rates of 90 percent and cure rates of approximately 80 percent and even higher among low-risk patients.