What is the key to fatty acid synthesis?

What is the key to fatty acid synthesis?

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes synthesis of malonyl-CoA, is the only regulated enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Its regulation involves both allosteric control and covalent modification. The enzyme is known to be phosphorylated by both AMP Kinase and Protein Kinase A.

What does fatty acid synthesis do?

Fatty acid synthesis is a critical anabolic pathway in most organisms. In addition to being the major component of membranes, fatty acids are important energy storage molecules, and fatty acyl derivatives possess a variety of physiological functions, including post-translational modification of numerous proteins.

Can fatty acids be synthesized in the body?

The human body cannot synthesize fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms chain; however, there were studies in which this type of fatty acids were identified in a low concentration in plasma [1]. Once ingested, short chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids.

How fatty acids are formed?

Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases. This process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. Most of the acetyl-CoA which is converted into fatty acids is derived from carbohydrates via the glycolytic pathway.

Which are the major sites for fatty acid synthesis?

Which organ does fatty acid synthesis occur?

Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells while oxidative degradation occurs in the mitochondria. Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase. The major sites of fatty acid synthesis are adipose tissue and the liver.

What are the components of fatty acid synthase?

The FAS monomer (approximately 270 kDa) contains six catalytic activities and from the N-terminus the order is beta-ketoacyl synthase (KS), acetyl/malonyl transacylase (AT/MT), beta-hydroxyacyl dehydratase (DH), enoyl reductase (ER), beta-ketoacyl reductase (KR), acyl carrier protein (ACP), and thioesterase (TE).