What is the mechanism for anthracyclines cardiotoxicity?

What is the mechanism for anthracyclines cardiotoxicity?

The main mechanism of anthracycline cardiotoxicity is now thought to be through inhibition of topoisomerase 2β resulting in activation of cell death pathways and inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis.

Why do anthracyclines cause cardiotoxicity?

Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is due in large part to the generation of free radicals from doxorubicin through mitochondrial redox cycling of doxorubicin in the cardiomyocyte, which ultimately results in left ventricular dysfunction, and in the most severe cases, congestive heart failure.

When does anthracycline cardiotoxicity occur?

To be practical, anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity is now thought to occur at the time of first exposure, a hypothesis supported by the finding of troponin release after anthracycline administration (16). Clinical presentation may occur years later the initial damage (16–18).

How do anthracyclines work?

Anthracyclines have a chromophore moiety that has an intercalating function and inserts between adjacent base pairs of DNA when localized to the nucleus of the cell; this inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis, especially in highly replicating cells blocking cell division.

How can you prevent cardiotoxicity?

There are four main strategies to mitigate anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity; decreasing lifetime cumulative dose, prolonged intravenous infusion, liposomal formulation, and the addition of dexrazoxane. Lifetime anthracycline cumulative dose is clearly associated with higher rates of HF.

Is snake venom used in chemotherapy?

Several studies have found that snake venoms possess therapeutic agents that can be used as anticancer agents [153,154]. Therefore, snake venoms could open the doors for novel areas of drug development and research for new cancer treatment [155] [156][157][158]. …

What causes cardiotoxicity?

Cardiotoxicity is a condition when there is damage to the heart muscle. As a result of cardiotoxicity, your heart may not be able to pump blood throughout your body as well. This may be due to chemotherapy drugs, or other medications you may be taking to control your disease.