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WHO guidelines DKA management?

WHO guidelines DKA management?

Criteria for resolution of DKA includes a glucose <200 mg/dl, serum bicarbonate ≥18 mEq/l, and a venous pH of >7.3. Once DKA is resolved, if the patient is NPO, continue intravenous insulin and fluid replacement and supplement with subcutaneous regular insulin as needed every 4 h.

What are the basic principles of DKA management?

The basic principles of DKA management include rapid restoration of adequate circulation and perfusion with isotonic intravenous fluids, gradual rehydration and restoration of depleted electrolytes, insulin to reverse ketosis and hyperglycaemia and regular monitoring of clinical signs and laboratory tests to detect and …

When is DKA resolved?

A blood glucose concentration of less than 200 mg per dL, a bicarbonate level of 18 mEq per L or greater, and a venous pH level of greater than 7.3 indicate that the DKA has resolved. 3 Typical duration of therapy is about 48 hours.

What are the three criteria for DKA?

In the past, the most widely used diagnostic criteria for DKA included a blood glucose level >250 mg/dl, a moderate degree of ketonemia, serum bicarbonate <15 mEq/l, arterial pH <7.3, and an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis.

How is DKA treated in ICU?

TREATMENT OPTIONS IN THE ED OR ICU The treatment of acute DKA includes restoration of fluid deficits in the first 24 to 36 h, electrolyte replacement and insulin therapy, which is administered slowly to decreased plasma glucose[23,24].

Why is potassium given in DKA?

Change in osmolality: The rise in plasma osmolality in DKA causes osmotic water movement out of the cells. Potassium also moves into the extracellular fluid due to the contraction of the intracellular fluid space, which favors passive potassium exit through potassium channels in the cell membrane.

When should DKA protocol be stopped?

DKA is resolved when 1) plasma glucose is <200–250 mg/dL; 2) serum bicarbonate concentration is ≥15 mEq/L; 3) venous blood pH is >7.3; and 4) anion gap is ≤12. In general, resolution of hyperglycemia, normalization of bicarbonate level, and closure of anion gap is sufficient to stop insulin infusion.

Which is worse DKA or HHS?

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%.

Is DKA an emergency?

DKA is a life-threatening condition that can lead to coma or even death. Extreme thirst and frequent urination are often some of the first symptoms to appear.

What does DKA mean?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes. DKA is a medical acronym for diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious complication that can develop when a person with diabetes has too little insulin available for his body’s needs. If DKA isn’t treated, it can be fatal.

What does DKA mean in diabetes?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that is linked to diabetes. If you don’t have enough insulin to help your body process sugars (glucose), your body will start burning fat to fuel itself. As a result, acids called ketone bodies build up in the body. Left untreated, these ketone bodies poison you.

What is a DKA dog?

DKA or diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic disorder affecting dogs that occurs as a form of complicated diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes mellitus is caused by the lack of insulin (either by lack of insulin production or inactivity of insulin receptors), and besides many functions of insulin,…

What is a DKA patient?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients.