How do teratogens affect fetal development?

How do teratogens affect fetal development?

Teratogens may affect the embryo or fetus in a number of ways, causing physical malformations, problems in the behavioral or emotional development of the child, and decreased intellectual quotient (IQ) in the child.

How early can teratogens affect development?

Experts believe that teratogens can begin affecting a baby growing in the womb about 10 to14 days after conception. Conception is when a woman’s egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm.

Which week would the embryo be more susceptible to teratogenic effects?

Major malformations are more common in early embryos than in newborns; however, most severely affected embryos are spontaneously aborted during the first six to eight weeks of gestation. During organogenesis between days 15 to 60, teratogenic agents are more likely to cause major congenital malformations.

What stage of pregnancy are teratogens most harmful?

Time of exposure: Teratogens are most harmful early in pregnancy, starting about 10 to 14 days after conception to about 8 weeks into pregnancy.

What teratogens cause birth defects?

Polychlorinated biphenyls, also known as PCBs, are shown to cause fetal growth restriction and skin discolouration. X-rays can cause problems with fetal development, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, blindness, abnormalities of the arms and legs, or microcephaly, which is a condition where the brain is too small.

What are teratogens give 5 examples?

Common teratogens include some medications, recreational drugs, tobacco products, chemicals, alcohol, certain infections, and in some cases, uncontrolled health problems in the birthing parent. Alcohol is a well-known teratogen that can cause harmful effects on the fetus after exposure at any time during pregnancy.

Is caffeine a teratogen?

In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight.

What are 2 common teratogens?

Teratogenic agents include infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU); environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB.

Which month is most critical in pregnancy?

The first trimester is the most crucial to your baby’s development. During this period, your baby’s body structure and organ systems develop. Most miscarriages and birth defects occur during this period. Your body also undergoes major changes during the first trimester.