Questions and answers

What is cross-coupled pair?

What is cross-coupled pair?

The cross-coupled pair (XCP) is such a topology: it has evolved for 95 years and adapted itself to various device technologies, supply voltages, and operation speeds. In this and future columns, we analyze this circuit? s properties and study its applications in both analog and digital design.

What type of coupling is used in differential amplifiers?

As no coupling devices are used, the coupling of the amplifier stages is done directly and hence called as Direct coupled amplifier.

What is CMOS differential amplifier?

When the two input voltages are unequal, the amplifier produces a high voltage output. CMOS differential amplifiers are more widely used for various applications as compared to single-ended amplifiers. A fully differential amplifier circuit produces two inputs and two outputs.

What is cross coupled inverter?

The inverters are cross-coupled to form a flip-flop for storing data. The flip-flop is connected between a power source VCC and the ground. A single transfer gate MOS transistor Q0 is connected to the flip-flop for reading/writing data. A word line is connected to the gate of the transfer gate MOS transistor Q0.

Are amplifiers AC or DC?

Most amplifiers use AC coupling. Electronic signal amplifiers come in two basic types: those that can amplify a steady voltage (DC) and those that block DC but amplify audio and higher frequencies. AC amplifiers reject noise more easily, while DC amplifiers have better low-frequency response.

What is the purpose of a differential amplifier?

Differential amplifiers are used mainly to suppress noise. Noise consists of typical differential noise and common-mode noise, of which the latter can easily be suppressed with an op-amp.

Why do we use T flip-flop?

T flip-flops are handy when you need to reduce the frequency of a clock signal: If you keep the T input at logic high and use the original clock signal as the flip-flop clock, the output will change state once per clock period (assuming that the flip-flop is not sensitive to both clock edges).

How many transistors are in an inverter?

A basic CMOS inverter uses 2 transistors. Inputs can be added by using transistors with several gate contacts. It works when that gate is one among many others, driving a few similar gates.

When was the cross coupled pair Part II published?

The Cross-Coupled Pair—Part II IEEE SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS MAGAZINEFALL 20149 A CIRCUIT OR ALL SEASONS Behzad Razavi F The Cross-Coupled Pair—Part II Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSSC

Which is an example of a cross coupled pair?

Following a general overview of the cross-coupled pair (XCP) in the last issue, we begin to study specific circuit examples incorporating this topology. We deal with digital appli- cations in this issue. The performance of digital cir- cuits can be improved if an XCP is tied between complementary (dif- ferential) signals.

What is the output waveform of a double balanced mixer?

The output waveform, vout, for the double balanced modulator is shown in figure 8. The double balanced mixer in figure 9 generates both a sum and difference frequency.

How is the double balanced mixer used in UMD?

The double balanced mixer in figure 9 generates both a sum and difference frequency. Further deriviatives of the double balanced mixer can be used to generate only the upper, or lower, sideband during the modulation process, or can be used to mix two signal and reject either the lower, or the upper, image frequency.