What is Vinay and Darbelnet model?

What is Vinay and Darbelnet model?

Vinay and Darbelnet proposed seven methods or procedures, they are borrowing, calque, literal, transposition, modulation, equivalence, adaptation. Calque is a special kind of borrowing whereby a language borrows an expression from another, but the translator translates literally each of its elements.

What are the 3 types of oblique translation techniques?

Oblique translation techniques include:

  • Transposition.
  • Modulation.
  • Reformulation or Equivalence.
  • Adaptation.
  • Compensation.

What is calque technique?

When used as a verb, to calque means to borrow a phrase or word from another language whilst translating its components in order to create a new lexeme in the target language. It’s a class of loan in which words or phrases are borrowed from another language, with each of the elements of the phrase being translated.

What is transference translation?

Transference according to Newmark (1988: 81) is the process of transferring an SL word to a TL text. It also includes transliteration, which relates to the conversion to different alphabets. It is a procedure when the translator decides to use the SL word in TL without any change.

What are the problems of translation?

Some of the most common challenges of translation include:

  • Translating Language Structure.
  • Translating Idioms and Expressions.
  • Translating Compound Words.
  • Missing Names In Translation.
  • Two-Word Verbs.
  • Multiple Meanings In Translation.
  • Translating Sarcasm.

What are the translation strategies?

7 translation techniques to facilitate your work

  • Borrowing. Borrowing is a translation technique that involves using in the target text the same word or expression found in the original text.
  • Calque.
  • Literal translation.
  • Transposition.
  • Modulation.
  • Equivalence.
  • Adaptation.

What is the best method of translation?


Method Quality
MT + light Post-editing Medium. Understandable without being well written. May contain translation errors.
Human translation High. Accurate and well written, but possibility of inadvertent translator error.
HT + Revision Highest. Of publishable quality, suitable for any purpose.

Is loanword a calque?

The term calque itself is a loanword from the French noun calque (“tracing, imitation, close copy”) while the word loanword is a calque of the German noun Lehnwort.

What causes the greatest problem of translation?

Compound words frequently cause problems in translation of language. This is because when two words are joined together to create a new word the meaning of the two words may be quite different from the compound word. There are three different groups to consider.

Why is translation so difficult?

The best translations are produced by humans. Translation can also be difficult because of cultural differences. Words often reflect the culture and the society that use them. Translators need linguistic, socio-cultural and pragmatic competence of the two languages to translate.