Questions and answers

What type of CT is used for pheochromocytoma?

What type of CT is used for pheochromocytoma?

In patients with known metastatic pheochromocytomas, 18FDG PET/CT is preferred over 123I-MIBG.

How is paraganglioma detected?

Tests used to diagnosed paraganglioma include: Blood and urine tests. Your doctor may recommend blood tests and urine tests to measure the levels of hormones in your body. These tests may detect extra hormones produced by paraganglioma cells or a tumor marker called chromogranin A.

What is the difference between paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma?

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the adrenal medulla (the center of the adrenal gland). Paragangliomas form outside the adrenal gland.

What is the best test for pheochromocytoma?

Plasma free metanephrines constitute the best test for excluding or confirming pheochromocytoma and should be the test of first choice for diagnosis of the tumor. A negative test result virtually excludes pheochromocytoma.

When should you suspect pheochromocytoma?

The most leading catecholamine-related sign for clinicians to suspect pheochromocytoma is hypertension. Related to hypertension, four patterns of blood pressure are seen. Sustained hypertension, paroxysmal hypertension, sustained hypertension with paroxysms, and normotension.

What is CT adrenal protocol?

The CT protocol comprises of baseline non-contrast scan through adrenal glands followed by a contrast-enhanced scan at portal venous phase (60-70 seconds) followed by delayed scan at 15 minutes.

How long can you live with paraganglioma?

Patients with a small paraganglioma that has not spread to other parts of the body have a five-year survival rate of about 95%. Patients with paraganglioma that has grown back (recurred) or spread to other parts of the body have a five-year survival rate between 34% and 60%.

Is paraganglioma a terminal?

Paraganglioma of the filum terminal/cauda equina is a rare slow growing tumor which originates from the ectopic sympathetic neurons. Surgically, total excision may be difficult for this well demarcated tumor surrounded by couple of rootlets but is usually possible in nearly all cases.

How rare is a paraganglioma?

Paraganglioma is rare and it is estimated that only 2 people out of every 1 million people have paraganglioma. It is most often found in people aged 30 to 50 years old.

What is the survival rate of pheochromocytoma?

Patients with a small pheochromocytoma that has not spread to other parts of the body have a five-year survival rate of about 95%. Patients with pheochromocytoma that has grown back (recurred) or spread to other parts of the body have a five-year survival rate between 34% and 60%.

How do you rule out pheochromocytoma?

Because catecholamine relase varies throughout the day, the best method of diagnosing pheochromocytomas is using a 24-hour urine collection. This involves obtaining a special urine container, which has a small amount of preservative, from a medical laboratory and filling it with one entire day’s worth of urine.

What can mimic a pheochromocytoma?

Thyrotoxicosis, hypoglycemia, anxiety or panic attacks, hyperthyroidism, adrenal medullary hyperplasia, familial dysautonomia, and intracranial lesions may also have similar symptoms. Various tumors including neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, and ganglioneuromas may mimic pheochromocytomas.

What kind of differential diagnosis is there for paraganglioma?

Differential diagnosis differs depending on the location and histology of the paraganglioma but can include 17: melanoma mesenchymal tumours adrenal cortical tumours

What are the symptoms of a CT scan without contrast?

not present Exam Contrast Signs and Symptoms KUB (stone) History of stones, hematuria, flank pain Chest C+ With Contrast Initial lung nodule scan, cancer Chest C- Without Contrast Lung screening, f/u prior nodules etc. Chest HIRES Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary fib

What are the features of a paraganglia tumor?

Tumor arising in the paraganglia are called paragangliomas. They are classified by both location and secretory function. Sympathetic paragangliomas present with features of catecholamine-excess, such as headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis and hypertension.

When does chest CT require contrast and contrast?

The diagnostic algorithm for lung cancer screening is evolving. The US Preventive Services Task Force currently recommends low-dose CT without contrast, along with appropriate patient counseling, for patients with a history of smoking and an age range as detailed in the Task Force statement. 3